Understanding Audio Normalling

Normalling routes signals automatically between sockets on a jackfield. The signal at the top jack flows through to the jack directly below. The normal path is most commonly wired internally from the source jack (Row 1) to the destination jack (Row 2).

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Programmable Normals*

Selectable normals allow the user to select any typical normal configuration by setting switches on an impedance-matched dip switch located on the individual audio card.

* This refers to the ADC ProPatch® Programmable and UniPatch® only which are no longer available.

Normals Strapped (fully normalled)

In a fully normalled configuration, the normals of each jack in the top row are internally strapped to the normals of the jack below it with the tip (T), ring (R), and sleeve (S) contacts brought out to the rear panel terminations. At the rear panel, equipment is wired to the two jacks, creating a normal circuit. To break this normal connection, you insert a patch cord into either jack.


In a half-normalled configuration, the normals of the bottom jack are internally wired to the tip (T) and ring (R) connections of the top jack, and the tip, ring, and sleeve of both jacks are brought out to the rear terminations. Equipment is wired to the two jacks at the rear terminations, creating a normal circuit. Inserting a plug into the top jack monitors the circuit without breaking it, and inserting a plug into the bottom jack breaks the circuit. 

No Normals

A panel without normals has jacks that are open (no normal connection) until patched. When the patch cord is inserted, the signal flows through the cord and jack to or from the equipment connected to the jack at the rear terminations. No normal patch panels require looping plugs (u-links) or patch cords to complete the circuit

Normals Out

In this configuration normals are brought out to the rear terminations where you can strap them as you want them. Note that you cannot change the normalling on panels with internal normals because normalling is done at the jacks. Select the normals out option if you need the ability to change normals.

Sleeve Normals Out

Sleeve normals out are the same as normals out except that a sleeve normal is switched inside the jack in addition to tip and ring normals. The sleeve normal is also brought out and is typically used for a ground connection. Making it switchable allows grounds for different functions to be separated to prevent ground loops that produce audio hum

Bussed Grounds

In a bussed-grounds configuration the ground connections of all jacks are brought out to the rear terminations and connected together. This provides a common ground for all jacks.